Bismarck believed that the Russians cannot win. Attempts at military expansion of our country taken more than once, but ended the same — the defeat of the aggressor.
The theater of war.
In the history of the wars with Russia from the enemy, who did not complain on its vast expanse, cold and off-road. For wars until the beginning of XX century, when losses from diseases usually outnumbered in combat a few times it was an important factor. Frost became one of the causes of death during the Northern war, first class for its time, but a few of the Swedish army in Russia.
By the time the battle of Poltava Charles XII was not in service and 30 thousand people; from the use of artillery because of a shortage of gunpowder, the Swedes refused. In fact that Poltava was a logical final point of action of the Swedish army stranded hundreds of miles from supply bases, deprived of reinforcements, supplies and munitions. Any protracted campaign is a war of attrition forces, and a protraction of hostilities leads to certain non-combat losses. Here revealing the events of the Patriotic war of 1812.
Thus, the number of French troops who had invaded Russia, is estimated by different experts differently, but not less than 500 thousand people. A month and a half at Borodino Napoleon was about 135 thousand people. The army fell more than two-thirds without a General battle, craved the French commander. Some of the troops were left as garrisons and to guard the communications. There were huge losses from diseases — typhus fever decimated the French troops and their allies. Had also suffered heavy losses, the French cavalry in a horse-drawn part, where the third cavalry by the Smolensk battle turned into infantry.
Off road and a chance encounter with a powerful guerrilla war was stopped by opponents of Russia during the Crimean war, of invasions in inland provinces of Russia, and was forced to restrict actions in the coastal zone. Although there epidemics, particularly of cholera, won in the ranks of the French and British far more than the allies lost in all the bloody deeds on the bastions of Sevastopol.
Thus, 22 thousand French military personnel killed in battle and died of wounds accounted for more than 75 thousand people died of illnesses. During the First world war German troops occupied Poland, of the Baltic States and Belarus did not hurry to conduct serious offensive operations on the territory of Russia, fearing to emerge from a dense network of Railways and to lose mobility in war on two fronts threatened to be catastrophic.
Unification of weapons.
Any large war leading to the reconstruction of the economy and the subordination of its military needs. It was during the long Northern war, when the bet was made on the development of production necessary for the needs of the army and Navy: from cloth and canvas manufactories to weapons factories. An important factor in the great war was the unification of production. When it was necessary to clothe and equip the largest army of Europe, he relied on the popularity, simplicity in the production and development of weapons. To not overload the material with a mass of statistics, we restrict ourselves to a few examples.
Shortly before the Patriotic war of 1812 were unified calibers of the Russian artillery, which allowed to simplify and reduce the cost of production. During the First world war, the unification was primarily the production of small arms, when three specimens of the famous «trehlineyki» were concentrated in one Dragoon. It is often said that it happened in Soviet times (and officially it is really so) — and actually even in the First world.
Even more factor for the unification of armaments appeared in the great Patriotic war — in the conditions,when x against each other acted millions army with a large saturation technique. The priority as ever was given may not be perfect, but simple in the production and development of bulk sample.
In Germany everything was the opposite and the focus is put on the creation of super weapons — tanks, aircraft and infantry weapons. Yes, German «Panther» was superior to the Soviet «word out» — but how many? A little less than 6 thousand against tens of thousands of Soviet medium tanks. And thus, creating a good medium tank, the enemy has not stopped the release of those «fours» — and it is a huge commitment of time and resources. The same applies to small arms and weapons — the Germans managed to create a «Sturmgewehr» — essentially automatic, except that they used it in droves already at Konigsberg and Berlin in 1945 — too late, and serious role these weapons played.
Often Russia and later the Soviet Union fought a war in coalition against a common enemy. However, until now there has been a debate of what these allies brought more harm or good. The first big experience was during the great Northern war, when Russia’s allies were Denmark and Poland. With the Danes, the Swedes killed before the Russian troops had time to finish the focus, and Poland and Saxony while and bound at the time of the Swedes, Peter the great giving, the opportunity to reorganize the army, but in a military aspect Russia still had one-on-one fight even with a small but considered a model for the Swedish army.
The next great war, where Russia acted in Alliance with European countries was the Seven years war, where the allies of Russia made France and Austria. However, within two years the Russian forces, essentially acting in the interests of the Austrians suffered heavy losses without clear military and political result. It was only when the army was put Saltykov, who showed admirable independence, Prussian troops suffered a crushing defeat at Kunersdorf.
After the Prussian army for some time altogether ceased to exist as an organized force. Road to Berlin for the allied Russian and Austrian troops was opened. But then, the allies-the Austrians abandoned the capture of the Prussian capital, fearing strengthening of Russia’s position. Saltykhov drained of blood and with a heavy battle troops alone from March to Berlin had to be abandoned. Similar trends can be noted in a series of Russo-Turkish and, above all,
The Napoleonic wars, when the interests of the allies was put above their own political goals and military expediency. In 1799, it almost ended in disaster to the army of Suvorov in Switzerland, where only the leadership talent and tireless energy of the commander saved the Russian army from captivity or destruction. This is the fourth coalition war, during which Russian troops joined the fight at the moment when main ally, Prussia, was defeated by the French, and after bloody battles at Pultusk, at Prasis-Eylau and Friedland was concluded disadvantageous for Russia the Treaty of Tilsit.
After a victorious campaign of 1812 during the foreign campaigns of the high command of the troops of the anti-Napoleonic coalition resolutely there was no place for any Russian commander that greatly influenced the struggle.
The apogee of political dependence in hostilities for the First world war. Not accidentally formed a grim saying that Marshal Foch is willing to fight to the last drop of Russian blood. And many Russians win, whether Gumbinnen, the battle of Galicia or the Brusilov offensive were rather the allies in the Entente, and the Russian army promised new German divisions, the enemy rushed from the Western front. Greater independence had Russian troops on the Caucasian front, where the Russian army has achieved extraordinary success. The individual is a part of the Soviet Union in the anti-Hitler coalition.
Here the picture was different, but similar with previous wars, up to June 1944 the Soviet Union on the major land theatre of war fought with Germany and its satellites virtually
alone. No El Alamein, no landing on Sicily in scope are not comparable with the Moscow battle, Stalingrad or Kursk arch. Apparently, big was truth in the words of Alexander the Third, saying that the only allies of Russia are its army and Navy.