March 6, turns 79 years old famous Valentina Tereshkova — the first in world history the woman who went into space.
Congratulating Valentina happy birthday, recalls, through what difficulties had to pass «our Seagull» as he called Tereshkova in accordance with its Callsign beautiful to perform their literally lofty mission in June 1963.
«Seagull» might not fly
The first obstacle that stood in the way Tereshkova into space, could be the last judging by the test results, it is somewhat inferior to other contenders for a unique flight.
However, even this was a success — to pass an initial selection of more than a thousand women managed just five: in addition to weavers Tereshkova, teacher Zhanna is Erkin, Secretary and stenographer Tatiana Kuznetsova, Irina Solovyova engineer and mathematician and programmer Valentina Ponomareva.
Last barely not received a «withdrawal» from attending a kind of «casting» astronaut-pioneer Yuri Gagarin, who complained that it’s not good to risk the life of the mother (Ponomareva son, Alexander, was about five years old).
However, in favor of the girls played the signature of the Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in her statement — he was the head of the institution in which she worked. Moreover, Ponomariov became the best by results of medical and physiological surveys and theoretical training, ahead of Kuznetsov and Soloviev. Other Valentina, Tereshkova, only rounded out the top five, which should put an end to her hopes. However, there were additional indicators that have played in favor of Tereshkova.
«Subsequently, I (others probably too) repeatedly asked why you chose Tereshkova. What can I say? — wrote in his book «the Female face of the Cosmos» Ponomarev. — Eugene A. (Karpov, the first head of cosmonaut training Center — approx. «RG») before you start talking to us on this subject, with me and with Irina Solovieva separately.
Irina he said that for the first female flight need a man «contact» who is able to communicate with large masses of people, because after the flight you will have to travel a lot around the Union and in foreign countries with performances, and she is by nature somewhat closed. Me and Evgeny said that for political reasons must fly «man of the people». I had the misfortune to happen «from servants».
However, Ponomareva at all offended by being unfair to her decision Tereshkova was considered «worthy of his destiny«. «I’m not sure I would shoulder the role that it plays in public life,» said cosmonaut frustrated.
«You shall die, and not say anything!«
The flight was Valentina. If on June 17, 1963, according to Colonel-General Nikolai Kamanin (he trained astronauts to fly and kept diaries about their work), felt good, was cheerful and sociable, the next day, the specialist found the change:
«With Tereshkova talked a few times.
It is felt that she is tired but doesn’t want to admit it. In the last session she did not answer the calls. We have included the television camera and saw that she was asleep. I had to Wake her up and talk to her.»
As it turned out later, Tereshkova during the flight and in fact was not feeling well. «On the second day appeared aching pain in the right tibia, and on the third day it was already disturbed. The mask interfered, and pushed on his shoulder. Headset pressed to his left ear. Lap sensors did not disturb me. Under the sensor head felt itchy and pain,» she said on arrival in his report.
In addition, there were problems with digestion. As admitted Tereshkova, once in flight, she threw up — «for food, and not due to vestibular disorders»: «the Bread is very dry, I have not eaten it, like black bread, potatoes and onions».
However, despite his discomfort, reaches me, Valentine had perked up and tried not to give experts cause for concern.
«My proposal to take from the kit one tablet of a sedative and take her Tereshkova refused and said: «Doctor, don’t worry, I will perform the job,» recalled the Deputy chief of medical missions Mr Azovskiy. By the way, rumor has it that Sergey Korolev has set before him the issue of early termination of flight, they say, the footage from the ship the astronaut looks almost immobile and does not do the job. And the doctor has convinced the Board that Valentine’s day should bring its work to an end.
«We knew that Valya were not feeling well during the flight — telemetry-that in fact was aware that not all items of the flight task, she was able to execute, — wrote the understudy Tereshkova Valentina Ponomareva in his book. I think she made the mistake of not having told about it directly and sincerely. Print then triumphantly announced: the task, the astronaut feels well, but something leaked, and rumors, gathering, as it always happens, different fantasies. It is not necessary, however, to dump all the blame for these defaults in one of the astronaut: this position will die, and not say anything! is determined by the condition of public conscience».
And another revelation Ponomareva: «as for me, I’m not entirely sure that flight would have felt better. And reluctantly I must confess: not sure I would have the courage to admit you feel unwell».
Mission impossible?As it turned out after the flight, Tereshkova emerged and a lot of technical difficulties. «To work with equipment difficult: I did not reach the globe and other devices. Had to partially get rid of the harness, said Tereshkova specialists. — Biological experiments I have not done — unable to get object».
But it was not so bad. We can only guess what the astronaut felt when she twice failed to align the vehicle pitch angle between its longitudinal axis and the transverse plane, creating the risk of a bad landing.
«This fact worries us all: if we have to go manually and it will not be able to Orient the ship, then it does not come down from orbit — recalled Kamanin. And noted the confident behaviour of the astronaut: — At our doubts, she said, «don’t worry, I’ll do it in the morning.» Indeed, in 45 turn, she managed to direct the device on-boarding.
— The fact that in the automatic program of the ship was made some not inaccurate, but rather a mistake: he was oriented in such a way that, instead of conducting a system of descent, its orbit, in contrast, was raised. And I instead of Earth flew «over there» — revealed the secret decades after Tereshkova. — This error in the very first day I noticed and reported to Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, Yuri Gagarin kept me in the loop». This allowed to solve the problem.
All these episodes that have become known in the art, unfortunately, resulted in a not too pleasant for Tereshkova opinion. «It’s an amazing, courageous woman, but she has not fulfilled a single of his job! — once said in a radio interview pilot Marina Popovich, another contender for the first flight. — She was sick in space, she lost consciousness, I told Korolev. Then when he told me: «While I’m alive, no woman in space will not fly». And twenty years our women were not in space».
By the way, comrade Korolev, scientist Boris Chertok in his book «Rockets and people» remembered the unpleasant conversation of Sergei Pavlovich with Tereshkova soon after landing: «a Confidential conversation instead of ten lasted thirty minutes. Queens came first. Looking at the audience, smiled slyly and left quickly. Another few minutes we waited for Tereshkova. She couldn’t hide the tearful eye and subdued state. I had a feeling that she’s about to cry. When I returned, the table was heated discussion of the incident. Think Kalashnikov said: «a Woman, even an astronaut, remains a woman, to hurt her easier than thick-skinned man.» None of us did not know why the SP (the so-called Queen of his colleagues — approx. «RG») needed to bring Tereshkova to tears».
Meanwhile, Valentina Ponomareva, who probably more than any other had reason to speak evil against Tereshkova, justified: «I say — she did everything she was supposed to: after all, and flew first to know what will be there in person. More important not all of the six first astronauts, and on its decision depended the rest. All other studies that were conducted in flight cardinal did not matter, though, of course, were also very important.»
«Star» with a bruise on his nose
Difficult Valentina turned out and landing in the Altai region after nearly three days after takeoff. Then she had to worry many unpleasant minutes, and along with it all, who was accompanied by flight of «the Seagull».
Here, diary entry of Nikolai Kamanin, one of which is more clear and without interpretation of terms and abbreviations: «At 9 hours, 39 minutes and 40 seconds sent the command to switch on the automatic cycle the landing of the ship «Vostok-6». From that moment the tension of all present in KP has increased dramatically. Tereshkova was not reported on the incorporation of solar orientation, there was her report and the work of the TDU, and the separation of the compartments of the ship. These were the most anxious moments: we had no data on the status of «Vostok-6».
However, with ships we have been informed of the passing of all the teams on Board, but we have learned with considerable delay, and, in addition, we would love to hear the reports of the Tereshkova, and she was silent. A few minutes after the estimated time of disclosure of the main parachute finders spotted the vehicle and gave first the coordinates of his landing: «Vostok-6″ went down exactly in orbit the 49th round, but with considerable flights… the Designers explain this error by the inclusion of reserve teams on the descent, but to me this explanation seems completely unsatisfactory. In the work of communications services and search had a lot of failures and mistakes».
Chayka was silent. Whether the link was wrong, whether she felt such excitement that he forgot about the reports. More than two hours was not clear what happened with the «Vostok-6», recalled about the incident Boris Chertok.
But he had another strong impression: «I still have a rare photo. Some of the correspondents were at the landing Tereshkova before her responsible for the safety of colonels and generals. Throwing aside all medical instructions, she made short work of local food, the comfort of parachute silk. Three days in space «the Seagull» had no food».
By the way, the landing Tereshkova — one of a kind. The huge distance she had to overcome in free flight catapult is similar to the height of seven miles, and a parachute would open in four kilometers from the earth. Cosmonaut recalled that at approach to the earth she felt «a quiet horror»: «Because at the bottom there was a lake. First thought: good Lord, has sent one woman, and one will end up in the water!»
Although technically Tereshkova was ready for splashdown, comfort in this, clearly, was not enough. And she managed to take the parachute onto dry ground. However, the troubles did not end. The strong wind prevented the girl to unfasten the parachute with a large dome and a long sling, and he was ready to push Tereshkova dragged along the ground.
— Had to «stand on your head,» then the parachute went, but the nose appeared to cancel the bruise, she said. — Then it was plastered over.
In fact, the pictures Tereshkova happy after her successful landing problems with the appearance is not noticeable. Perhaps after the flight Valentina seemed even more lovely than before. At least she immediately gained millions of fans around the world.